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Interpretation of Mold Spores from Air Test Results
One of the highest Acceptable Mold Spore methods of assessing indoor air quality testing and its effects on all building’s occupants iare usually the analysis of indoor air quality testing samples. Often these types of air samples are acquired using portable vacuum pumps that are calibrated to pull airflow through a tube at a specific volume of air per minute. The airflow that is pulled into the pump is trapped in a specially made cassette that contains an adhesive slide. Fungal, bacterial spores, airborne particulate that matters are deposited into the adhesive slide, which is then are analyzed under a microscope.
The analysis of these mold spore tape slides can provide results relatively accurately quickly because the samples don’t require culturing or growing fungal spores. However, produce spores that are very similar as to not be distinguishable by visual from analysis alone and are grouped together, e.g., Aspergillus/Penicillium. And still, other mold spore types lack identifiable characteristics and do get counted as the part of the larger group, such as Ascospores and Basidiospores.
Typically, all fungus spores assessment of indoor air quality takes into account not only the analysis result of the indoor air samples but also the comparison of these bacterial spore results to all levels of fungi and other airborne in an outdoor air sample. Bacterial spore count levels in indoor air samples most generally should be lower than levels in outdoor air quality samples. Indoor bacteria spore counts that usually are lower than outdoor spore counts; however, we do not automatically indicate that usually the indoor air quality testing is acceptable. High-level counts of individual types of spores count of the total spores in indoor air quality samples may indicate fungus mold growth inside buildings. The conclusions are that indoor mold growth is occurring might be strengthened further if mold spore flowering bodies – called hyphae – the Acceptable Mold Spore are also identified in the indoor air sample.
There are many other types of considerations to keep in mind when comparing outdoor comparison spore counts to indoor spore counts. The outside aerobiology is not always constrained because of the variable from the change of outside weather. For example, in the winter seasons, the spore count is always low outside samples. Similarly is in rainy weather causes spores to get washed away or tamped down from outside surfaces, resulting in a lower spore count in air samples. Also, in a warmer weather, the evaporation process can as well cause mold spores to rise in the air. Outside air quality has less influence on indoor air quality, on more energy-efficient buildings as well as people’s tendency do sometimes leave windows closed and rely use on indoor air conditioning. As a result, when particular species of mold spores – Stachybotrys / Chaetomium, for example – are found in indoor samples cassettes, even in a low count, their presence indicates a seriously high level of indoor mold issue because these mold spore types are not found in outdoor samples.
Raw Spores Count – the number of mold spores actually identified and counted on the adhesive air sample slide
Spores per Cubic Meter (Count/m3) – calculated by raw spore count x (1000/(rate of air test sampling) x (sampling test time)
The Total Background – Amount of particulate matter fragments present on the slide; graded from 1-5 to 1 being very little, while other debris ratings of 5 are unreadable. The higher the rating the most likely spores may be underestimated and overlap with background particulates.
Fibrous Particulate – Fibrous particulates can mostly come from many different sources, including clothing, floor textiles, building materials, and other paper products. They often are introduced into the air due to turbulence forces and do friction applied into these materials. Improperly cleaned or maintained airflow ventilation sometimes increases the distribution of fibrous particulates.
Skin particulates – the dead skin cells either from humans or pets. Dead skins are continually shed by all the inhabitants of a home. Thousands type of cells per day slough off from each person and into the living environment. Of course, also pets shed lots of dead skin cells. Skin cells gradually do push their way into the top layer. When they do reach the top, they die and are “weathered” by the environment from people’s daily activities.
Particulate matter (PM) – and skin particulates can sometimes be inhaled into the lungs where they are absorbed into the bloodstream. They are a respiratory irritant and this can cause many pulmonary effects such as coughing, respiratory illnesses, bronchitis, lung disease, these symptoms increase airway reactivity and exacerbation of asthma. Particulate matter also are thought to have direct effects to the heart (EPA 2008c). Recent mortality studies have shown many times a statistically significant direct association between mortality and daily concentrations from particulate matter in the air space. Numerous of many studies link PM to many varieties of health effects, which include aggravated asthma, increases respiratory symptoms (irritation of the difficulty breathing, airways, coughing,), and decreases lung function in young children.
Hyphal fragments – Hyphae are small fragments from the mycelium of a mold. Mycelium is a mass of hyphae, this are vegetative of the body portion of the mold. It is very common to find numbers of hypha fragments in outdoor air quality testing and possibly in indoor dust. Their presence in the indoor air quality samples are in a high quantity or as large segments do indicate active mold growth in the building. If the conditions are suitable, the hypha fragments begins to grow and eventually lead to mold spore production.
Indoor air mold standard – There is no state or federal statutes or regulations yet regarding molds and disturbed indoor air quality. Acceptable levels for the individual from mold species since bacteria species toxicity varies highly as do the spore sizes, the weight, and other features that can affect the risk to building occupants. However, many public agencies make various publications regarding mold contamination on indoor air quality available for the public. Aspergillus / Penicillium in a “clean” residential building studies ware at a mean of 230/m3; Aspergillus / Penicillium in buildings are known to have moisture and or flooding problem was at 2235/m3; Aspergillus / Penicillium in mold-contaminated buildings was at 36,037/m3.
The publication, From American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (Air Quality Testing Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of Atmospheric Contaminants 1995), they recommended from the following guidelines:
100 cfu or less for cubic meter of air quality disturbed usually indicates low risk.
100 cfu to 1000 cfu for cubic meter of air quality disturbed usually indicates intermediate risk.
1000 or more cfu for cubic meter of air quality disturbed usually indicates a high risk.
Many people still believe that spore count of 40 Stachybotrys or Chaetomium spores/m3. The air quality testing disturbed would be unusually high as this mold contamination is usually not normally airborne. Conversely, a count of 199 Aspergillus sp. spores/m3. The air quality in the same circumstances might be considered very clean.
After the study and reviewing the literature standards of indoor the mold spores, Enzcycle Lab, LLC They propose the following actions:
|Categories||spores/m3 of air||Classification||Action|
No Action is Required
500 – 999
Remediation is required
Remediation is required
Direct surface samples sometimes are required of swabbing a surface suspected of contamination, applying tape lifting a sample, and analyzing a small piece of the contaminated surface material itself. These spore samples are then examined under a microscope.
Some of the mold contamination types are found in direct samples produce spores that are very similar as for distinguishable by visual analysis alone and are grouped together; e.g., Aspergillus / Penicillium. Still, other many spore types lack identifiable characteristics and are counted as part of a larger group, such as Ascospores / Basidiospores.
None spores detected
No Action is Required
1 to 10
Few spores found
Normal level detected
11 to 99
Remediation is Recommended
100 to 1000
Remediation is Required
Greater than 1000
High level of contamination
Remediation is Required
Background Debris – Also non-mold particulate do matter, including insect or skin fragments, that are present in the sample cassettes are rated from 1-5 with 1 being fairly little, while the debris rating of 5 are unreadable. The higher the rating is the more likely spores may be underestimated and overlap with background spores! Contact our Certifed Mold Inspectors for more info!.
Mold is a fungus that grows on moisture from poor ventilation in the properties. Mold families are mostly present everywhere around you. – indoors and they are outdoors. In fact, there are way more than 100 thousand species of mold spores / fungus. They serve a very important role for helping to break down organic matter. Outside, they are a very good thing, but they are not such a good thing in your home. Mold spores are likely to grow where there is water dampness, such as basements or bathrooms. They grow with many many seeds, to create “spores,” that can float in the air like very small particles of dust that naked eye can’t be determined. Mold spores in the air are naturally attach to any different places that are wet / damp, where they can begin growing super-fast. These tiny spores’ particles cannot be seen without a microscope, but they can be easily breathed in. The spores, if are inhaled, can trigger many allergies and asthma symptoms in some humans, or cause heavy coughing, sniffling, of feel cold-like symptoms
There is no real standard yet that has been regulated set by the government that states what level of mold spores are ‘safe’ / can or cannot affect health. Every individual is always different. Generally, there is consensus that, if you can smell or see mold, you should get rid of it by remediating it properly.
Mold is alive bacteria; it will always grow and reproduce if it has and gets what it needs – moisture is the food. What mold lives on is organic matter, so things that comes from an organic source will feed mold: dust, fabrics, carpets, drywall, and wood, dirt, paper, food, furniture.
Controlling moisture and keeping your property dry is very important in preventing mold growth. If you always keep your property dry, mold is unlikely to grow. If you keep your property cold, that somehow starves the mold, mold might not grow, but that doesn’t kill the mold you that you might already have. Mold spores remain dormant for a very long time, and when the conditions are right like, moisture for some sort of a water leak, mold will start to grow quicker.
Highly level of moisture in your home property can also come in from the outside the property as well, or such as foundation cracks, flooding or roofing leaks, or from the inside property where the people live. In general, if you see condensation on your windows, it is a sign of too much humidity in the property. The moisture amount that is in the air can be measured. Humidity levels between 33 and 55 percent are ideal (relative humidity in the home should be under 45-50 percent in the winter or lower will avoid condensation on windows). If necessary, you can use a commercial dehumidifier to lower the relative humidity in your home.
If you ever experience a water leak from inside or outside your home, don’t put off the emergency property repairs. A foundation crack or roof leak won’t get any better the longer you are willing to wait, and the more moisture that gets created into your home, the worse the mold problem will get. Moisture is a real problem in your home when there is not enough ventilation that will expel that moisture.
Mold fungi are found in small amounts due to their release of tiny spores. Spores can be very hazardous to human health and, if mold spores are inhaled, potentially will cause allergic reactions, such, or coughing, sniffling, asthma symptoms in some people, and other cold-like symptoms.
Health experts always indicate that, depending on the type of mold spores present in a home, the amount of exposure degree, and the health condition of the person, the health issues of mold can range from being insignificant and causing allergic illness reactions. Molds fungus also release a mixture of various volatile chemicals into air space that people breathe and that can impact health.
Infants, pregnant women’s, the elderly people, and those with health problems, with such as respiratory disease or with a weak immune system, are more likely at high risk when exposed to mold spores. Clinical manifestations range from acute invasive disease to harmless colonization. Predisposing factors include bone-marrow-transplant patients, corticosteroid therapy, prolonged neutropenia, especially in leukemia or cytotoxic chemotherapy, and AIDS.
Species of mold spore can sometimes be difficult to identify. Mold fungus come in many colors and thousands of types; it can be white, red, orange, yellow, black, blue, or violet. It can look fuzzy or have no texture. in most cases, it looks like dirt or a stain. Also, different kinds of mold species grow on different materials – some need just a tiny bit of moisture while some are happy with the trace amounts of moisture materials like wood.
Following mold descriptions and photos (taken with a lab microscope) of several common mold types.
Areas to be found: soil and decaying organic matter, such as leaves, compost piles, and rotten wood
Identification: Small pyriform-shaped sporangia with characteristic conical shaped columellae and pronounced apophysis; rapid growth at 40C
Mycotoxins produced: none identified at this time regarding
Health effects: Common human pathogen will cause pulmonary, rhinocerebral, disseminated, CNS, or cutaneous mucormycosis like (skin fungal infections).
Areasto be found: always inside building structures, frequently you can find them in insulation; or widely distributed in the plant soil debris. Identification: the colonies are always slow growing, very often are compact, and look moist at first, they become powdery, also seedlike, or floccose with ageing, and maybe look a bit white, grey, rose, pink, and or orange from the color. Hyphae are fine hyaline and produce mostly very simple awl-shaped erect phialides. Conidia are usually celled (macroconidia), hyaline and or pigmented, they globose to cylindrical, and are mostly aggregated in slimy heads in at the apex of their each phialide. RG-2 organism.
Mycotoxins produced: Crotocin,Verrol four-acetate
Health Effects: from Mycetoma (chronic inflammation from the tissues, are usually one of the feet and or legs), which usually develops very strong the following trauma, they the most common infection that caused by Acremonium spp. Their other sites of infection will include the eye (generally following the abrogation of their ocular defences); colonizing of disease in the lung and gastrointestinal are tract; and locally cause invasive infections – osteomyelitis (inflammation in the bone and bone marrows); sinusitis of (inflammation of high sinus membranes); arthritis; and peritonitis (inflammation of the high abdominal membranes).
Pneumonia and disseminated infections always are included for tough meningitis, endocarditis (inflammation membranes in the heart), and cerebritis high (inflammation of the cerebrum of the brain area) they have rarely been reported.
Areas to be found: saprophytic contaminants (using nonliving organic material as a nutrient source for growth and reproduction); most types are plant parasites, but a few species are ubiquitous and are also frequently soil-borne
Identification: the dematiaceous hyphomycete they always producing very long chains of darkly in pigmented, is to ovoid the obclavate dictyoconidia, and often with short conical or cylindrical beaks
Mycotoxins produced: Monomethyl ether Altenuic-acid, Alternariol, Brefeldin Alternariol A, Cytochalasins A&B, Destruxin B, Desmethyldestruxin B, L- tenuazonic acid, Altertoxins I, II, III, Homodestruxin B, Zinniol, Altenuene, Gliotoxin,
Health effects: Alternaria is one of the worse types of fungus mold that commonly causes super allergic reactions. And If you’re allergic to type sure will mold will cause it worse! And if you breathe-in Alternaria mold spores, chances are high that your immune system will go for sure haywire. This Such a symptom are typically one of the worse, like high among all types that cases heavy fever: sneeze, itchy and watery eyes, the runny nose, congestion, coughing hard, and dry your skin. Alternaria also is known to cause mycotic keratitis.
Areas to be found: are always in soil and decomposing plant environments; common in the outdoor or the indoor environments
Identification produces: are-celled the dark conidia with the pronounced hyaline rim or germ slit
Mycotoxins produced: 3-nitropropionic acid causing
Health effects: This type of fungus has been documented well for various subcutaneous and infections; this should be considered the most allergen; no toxic yet are related diseases on record to date.
Areas to be found: They grow very well under many variety conditions; they develop very easy during the winter and fallen leaves that were infected from the previous season. From budburst onwards, rain triggers the high release of ascospores all-over the air. Ascospores are always found frequently indoors on damp substrates areas.
Identification: of this type: Ascospores generally are found always in clusters of four and or eight spores within a very a single mother cell, the ascus, are super characteristic of the ascomycete. Their shape, size, and colors are different way depending on from the genus of ascomycetes mold growth fungi.
Mycotoxins are produced: They always vary in by individual types in
Health effects: And they are very known causing many different allergens and always their effects will vary widely between the genus type and species of every each Ascospore. Their toxigenic effects do also vary always widely within their group.
Areas to be found: They are always created on dead leaves, in they are stored grain in compost piles, or in other decaying vegetation of soil; they very common in both indoor and the outdoors environment; they produce a large vast number of very small, airborne spores. They also produce enzymes and they are capable of degrading a great different variety of organic substrates. A very large number of these species are xerophilic and can thrive in relatively from very low moisture. On the indoor environments, they are always found growing on fast woods, paper, paint, glue, and, also, even on large metal doors that hold dust and or dirt when the humidity is very high.
Identification: Always the identification from the Aspergillus spp. Has been done many times with morphological taxonomy, in accordance with high colony in diameter, conidial color, texture, soluble pigment, exudates, mycelium, excretions, shape, and the size of conidiophores, vesicles, phialides, metulae, conidia, and also their texture and color, is to follow the identification system on previously used for the genus Aspergillus (Raper & Fennell 1973, Christensen 1981, Klich & Pitt 1988, also the Domsch et al. in the year of 1993, and Klich 2002, Samson & Varga 2007).
Mycotoxins produced: Aflatrem, Austdiol, Austamide, Austocystin, Brevianamide, Citrinin, Citreoviridin, Cytochalasin E Oxalic acid, Patulin, Penicillic acid, Sterigmatocystin, Tryptoquivalene, Verruculogen, Viomellein, Viriditoxin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Destruxin B, Fumagillin, Gliotoxin, Malformin, Maltoryzine, Ochratoxin,
Health effects: The most important from these clinical species are A. flavus, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, and A. niger. Unlike thee mycotoxicoses, as the primary and most commen infection route for aspergilloses are in the through inhalation. Aspergillus represent a large continuum of symptoms from the very mild sneezing to concerning fatal systemic infections. Aspergillus is recognized as one of the most causative agents of mycotic keratitis. In more severe infections also can occur to the people with a weakened immune system, due to AIDS, leukemia, an few other issues like organ transplant, or chemotherapy.
Areas to be found: worldwide and are usually always isolated as a saprophyte (using nonliving organic material as the number one favored nutrient source for quick healthy growth and reproduction); it isolated on the skin and nails.
Identification: The produces of hyaline blastoconidia simultaneously is vary common from the vegetative hyphae, which in many cases may also form a large number in chains of darkly pigmented, is their thick-walled arthroconidia.
Mycotoxins produced: No one have yet identified until this time the Health effects: Report are rare causative type of agent of phaeohyphomycosis (fungal infection caused by a large number of brown and other pigmented fungi’s), (inflammation of the most common peritoneum, the thin tissue that lines the inner walls are one of the abdomen and always covers the most of the abdominal organs) the mycotic keratitis (corneal infection), and peritonitis in many patients still continuous ambulatory in peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
Areas to be found: The ubiquitous in nature; is mainly found on the gardens, like forests, and woodlands areas. The basidiospores are number one moisture driven as their spores disseminate during rain or speciality on the times when there is high humidity. The presence of these fungus spores the levels are much greater than those fungus of the outdoor environment are sometimes the indicator of fungal contamination from the water damage inside these new buildings. They always love Inside properties; and they can definitely, and will indicate the dry and or brown rot of woods materials.
Identification: The basidiospores are the ones called the sexual type of spore’s witch are produced by basidiomycetes and including from mushrooms, puffballs and bracket fungus. Basidiospores always show a wide range on a different shapes and sizes, the structure, and colors; however, they are always pronouncing the single-celled and are frequently in many small sizes, they range in 5 to 12 m. And overall, the shape of basidiospores could be globose, nodulose, angular, elliptical, fusiform, and or irregular. In addition, words, the basidiospores of many types of mushrooms and bracket fungi are mostly asymmetrical due to the presence of a very large hilar appendage, which always attaches the spores to and in the basidium. This structure attachment could and can be distinct or indistinct. Spores on walls may be very smooth look or feel ornamented with ridges, spines, or warts. An apical spore’s are in much common feature for many basidiospores and, always, when they are present, they are generally visible in the microscope light. Basidiospore colors always vary from the completely colorless and to various shades in the yellow, light brown, golden brown, and the dark brown to nearly or light black. Some of the basidiospores, such as the ones on the genus Ganoderma, always do have a transparent outer wall layer, and while the inner wall layers are golden brown with the spines.
Mycotoxins produced: None of these types are yet identified until this time
Health effects: These spores have been documented in different cases of hay fever, fatigue, runny nose, sneezing, stuffy nose, asthma, eczema, allergic alveolitis, , and the plugged ears.
Areas to be found: These types of fungi cloud either be plant pathogens or might be saprobes in from the natural environment
Identification: The colonies are mostly moderately super fast-growing, effuse, suede-like to floccose with a black reverse, grey to blackish brown. Microscopic morphology they mostly show sympodial development of pseudostate conidia on a geniculate pale brown pigmented, or zig-zag rachis. Conidia are usually produced through pores in the conidiophore wall (poroconidia) they are straight, fusiform to ellipsoidal, rounded at both ends, and smooth to finely roughened, they are germinating only from the ends (bipolar).
Mycotoxins produced: Sterigmatocystin Bipoaroxin, BMT-toxin, Cytochalasins A&B, Dihydrobipolaroxin, Pathotoxin, Siccanol,
Health effects: The number one cause of mycotic keratitis, sinusitis, peritonitis, subcutaneous, in patients on CAPD
Chaetomium Fungus Mold Growth Spores – Chaetomium Mold Spores
Areas to be found: The chaetomium is always been found on paper materials in sheetrock. When this type of mold is found indoors (Properties), the site should be considered definitely are from wet condition, which it means that all other types mold growth could be present. It could also be found on wet window frames, drywall, wallpaper, carpets, baseboards, and plywood. This type of mold growth causes many different problems of biodeterioration of paper and many, many, other cellulose-containing items, including plant compost and paper materials.
Identification: Perithecia had dense hairy surfaces and the shape of the perithecia ranged from globular to subglobular. Ascospores released within the perithelium were observed to ooze outside the ostiole as cirrhus. Under SEM, the form of the perithecia could not be established, since they were densely covered with stiff hairs having deposits. The ascospores below the SEM were lemon-shaped, smooth surface and apical papillae. The chaetomium colonies are fast-growing, cotton-white at first. Mature colonies change to gray to olive. From the lapel, the colour is tan to red or maroon to kind of black.
Mycotoxins produced: Chaetoatrosin, Chaetochromins like (A To D), Chaetocin, Mollicellin, O Methylsterigmatocystin, Sterigmatocystin, Chaetoglobosin A & C, Chaetomanone, Chaetomin, Cochliodinol.
Health effects: allergen; a very large number of new medicinal products have been reported concerning Chaetomium. Chaetomium spp. Are amongst the fungi causing infections entirely called Phaeohyphomycosis, a fungal infection caused by a very large number of fungi with brown pigments. Serious, life-threatening fungal infections (fungal infections) caused by Chaetomium have been documented. A cerebral abscess, peritonitis (infection of the peritoneum, the tissue lining the internal wall of the abdomen), skin lesions and onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nails) may occur as the result of the exposures. Individuals exposed to Chaetomium may have a predisposition to permanent neurological damage to the myelin sheath. Consequently, a remarkably high incidence of autoimmune illness has been associated with exposure to this mold.
Areas to be found: includes about 45 species have naturally been found on the soils, and on decaying plant material, also as different plant pathogens; several different studies in Europe and in North America have conducted and have seen throughout the year that Cladosporium spores are also present in the outdoor environment. However, concentrations are very, very low in wintertime. But In the summer, on daily peaks may range anywhere from 2,200 to 55,000 spores per air of a cubic meter. The Concentrations of Cladosporium species in the indoor air is much influenced by outdoor concentrations and of course the indoor growth sources.
Identification: The Colonies are rather slow-growing, mostly olivaceous-brown to blackish brown, but also sometimes gray, buff, or like brown, suede-like to floccose, often do become powdery due to the production of abundant conidia. Vegetative hyphae, conidiophores and conidia also have pigmentation. The conidiophores differ in a more or less from Cheatomium
Vegetativities Hyphae; they are erect, upright or flexed, not ramified or ramified only in the apical region, with a geniculate sympodial elongation in some species. Conidia are 1- to 4-celled, smooth, verrucosis, or echinulate, with a distinct dark hilum and are produced in acropetal branched strings. The term of the blastocatenate is often used to describe conidia chains where the youngest conidium occurs on the apical or distal end of the chain. Note that the usually the conidia closest to the conidiophore and where the chain’s branch is usually “shield-shaped.”
Mycotoxins produced: none have been identified at the time. Health effects: considered an allergen with potential for sinusitis and pulmonary infections; C. cladosporioides reported from an infection of the skin in an immunocompromised patient. According to Mayo Clinic, its various strains are among the most commonly are known as the allergenic molds.
Areas to be found: particularly they enjoy cellulose as the substrates, they could be found on decaying plant matter, or growing in the woods, and living plants. Some colonies herbs and grains, and others can live in the soil.
Identification: gray to black in color, generally darkening with age, and the underside of the colony will be a brighter white to like gray.
Mycotoxins produced: Curvularol, Belfedrin A, Curvularol Health effects: ocular keratitis (corneal infection), sinusitis, mycetoma (chronic fungal infection, usually affecting the foot), onychomycosis (fungal nail infections), pneumonia, endocarditis (inflammation from endocardium, the inner lining in the heart), cerebral abscess, and disseminated infection (an infection that enters the body at a specific point then usually spreads throughout, often affecting numerous organs); most cases are due to immunocompromised patients.
Areas to discover: Epicoccum is a widely distributed cosmopolitan saprophytic mussel, most commonly associated with senescent or dead vegetal matter. It is the most common agent of leafs spot by the disease in various plants; they are also isolated from wood, paper, textiles, and a variety of food, as well as on insects and human skin. It is also commonly found in soil and is readily isolated from air samples and, on occasion, from interior samples. Dry Epicoccum spores are readily dispersed through wind and hygroscopic motion. In outdoor air, Epicoccum spores are more common in dry, windy weather, with higher counts occurring later in the day.
Identification: Hyphae, conidiophores, sporodochies and conidia are visualised. The hyphae are septates in colour from yellow to brown. Short conidiophores from hyphae form bunches. These conidiophores branch several times and it can be seen as dense masses. Conidiophorous species give birth to conidia. The young conidia are round, nonseptate, and light-colored. Mature conidia (16-26 µm in diameter), on the other hand, are rough, verrucous to verrucous, and brown to black in colour. Furthermore, mature conidia contain several transverse and vertical septa and have a funnel-shaped base and a fixation scar which is formed from conidiophores aggregated on the sporodochium.
Mycotoxins produced: no mycotoxins have been identified at the moment. Health Effects: It is a common allergen to cause or causing type I allergies like hay fever and asthma. No documented cases of infection have occurred.
Areas of Concern: Colonizes continuously wet materials such as soaked wall panels and water tanks for humidifiers and drip pans. A common soil fungus that inhabits a wide variety of plants, this fungus was isolated from water-leak-damaged in carpets and a variety of other building materials.
Identification: On medium dextrose tuber agar, F. solani generates a sparse to abundant mycelium cream. Macroconidia have an average of three to four septa, are slightly curved, are rather large and thick-walled, and may have a slightly blunt apex. Microconidia are abundant, ovate to reniform, and formed by false heads on very long monophialids. Chlamydospores are abundant.
Mycotoxins produced: Acetoxyscirpenediol, Acetyl T-2 toxin, Avenacein +1, Beauvericin +2 Acetyldeoxynivalenol, Acetylneosolaniol, Butenolide, NT-1 toxin, NT-2 toxin, Sambucynin +1, Triacetoxyscirpendiol, Yavanicin+1, Scirpentriol, T-1 toxin, T-2 toxin, Zearalenon, Calonectrin, Deacetylcalonectrin, Deoxynivalenol diacetate, Deoxynivalenol monoacetate, Diacetoxyscirpenol, Monoacetoxyscirpenol, Neosolaniol, Nivalenol, Enniatins, Fructigenin +1, Fumonisin B1, Fusaric acid, Fusarin, HT-2 toxin, Ipomeanine, Lateritin +1, Lycomarasmin +1, Moniliformin, e
Health effects: Human exposure may sometimes occur through ingestion of contaminated grains and could possibly go through the inhalation of spores. Fusarium spp. is frequently implicated in ocular, skin and nail infections.
Areas to be found: Filamentous fungus are usually found in soil and plant material
Identification: characterized by the formation of synnemata which consist the same of a more or less usually the compact group of from the erect conidiophores that are cemented together, usually splaying out and bearing conidia at the apex. The synnematodes are dark pigmented, upright and occur singly or in clusters. Conidia are hyaline, single-celled, smooth, subglobose to ovoid, and are usually aggregated in the viscous heads at the apex of the synnetata.
Areas to be found: decaying logs, stumps and dead leaves (especially in woodlands). These organisms are dry and humid spores. The wind disperses dry spores from the fructiferous organism. Although most commonly found in humid climates, many of these herbaceous slime molds. Viscous moulds often appear in the same area on the grass year after year.
Identification: Colonies of viscous mould that live on pellets and bark mulch can be surprisingly coloured yellow, orange or red. Certain slimy moulds produce masses of cream-coloured cells with grass strands.
Mycotoxins produced: none has been identified for the moment. Health effects: type 1 allergies like ex, (hay fever and asthma); reactions of fungal hypersensitivities.
Nigrospora sphaerica Fungus Mold Spores
Areas to be found: widely distributed in soil, decaying plants, and seeds
Identification: filamentous dematiaceous fungus; horizontally flattened asexual spores are (conidia), often with an equatorial high colorless line Mycotoxins and unicellular, black, shiny, ovoid to ellipsoidal produced: Metabolite A Health effects: Can usually cause skin lesions and keratitis like (corneal infections).
Areas to be found: grow on a variety of substrates.
Identification: Identification is not possible in the absence of sporulation. These are usually the organisms that have not sporulated under the culture conditions provided.
The majority are never sporulated in cultivation (sterile mycelium).
Potentially all fungi have the ability to produce a non-porous state.
Unless distinguishing spore types are formed, it is possible that identification is not possible.
Non-sporulating mycelia may sometimes appear as colorless or pigmented (brown), septate (with cross-walls), or non-septate.
Mycotoxins produced: none have been identified for the moment Health effects: These are known allergens and irritants; they produce hypersensitive pneumonitis, dermatitis.
Areas to be found: soil, food, cellulose, grains, paint, carpets, wallpaper, inner insulation of fiberglass conduit, and decaying vegetation.
Identification: Microscopic characteristics of Penicillium: phialids may be produced in isolation, in groups or from branched metulaes, giving a brush-like appearance called penicillin. Penicillins can contain both branches and meteors (penultimate branches that carry a phialid whirl). All the cells between the medallions and the stems of the conidiophores are called branches. The branching model may be simple (not branched or monoverticillate), branched at a stage (verticillate-symmetrical), branched at two stages (biverticillate-asymmetrical), or branched at three stages. Conidiophores are hyalines and may be smoother with rough walls. Phialids are usually flask-shaped, consisting of a cylindrical basal part and a separate cervix, or lanceolate (with a narrow basal part narrowing at a slightly pointed apex). Conidia are spherical, ellipsoid, cylindrical or fusiform, hyaline or greenish, with smooth or rough walls. Sclerotia can come from some of these speciesMycotoxins produced: Citrinin, Citreoviridin, Patulin, Penitrem, Islanditoxin, Ochratoxin, Sterigmatocystin, Viopurpurin, Viomellein, Rubratoxin, Rubroskyrin, Rubrosulphin, Rugulosin
Health effects: Scientific evidence has shown from reserches that asthma is more common in adults living in wet houses and asthma is three times more common in adults with mould allergies. Penicillium can cause hyper-sensitive pneumonitis, asthma and allergic alveolitis in sensitive individuals. Fungi were isolated from patients presenting with keratitis, otitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis and urinary tract infections. Penicillium infections are most common among immunocompromised people. Penicillium in the air has been shown to be significantly associated with inferior respiratory tract infections in children.
Areas to be found: grass and rotting plant material Identification: Usually grows very quickly and has a woolly texture. The pigment is light/dark grey or brown on the surface, dark brown on the opposite side. Hyphae septa, hyaline to brown. Conidiophores are closely related to vegetative hyphae. Muriform, brown, ellipsoid/club-like conidia with smooth or like rough walls.
Mycotoxins produced: Sporidesmin Health effects: allergen, and irritant; produces hypersensitive pneumonitis, dermatite.
Areas to be found: soil, decaying vegetation, foodstuffs, and animal and bird dung Identification: Rapid growth at 40o C; sporangiophores often >1 mm in height, formed opposite rhizoids, sporangia 111-222 µm in diameter with distinctive high level of columellae and from the apophyses
Mycotoxins produced: Rhizonin A Health effects: from the most common causative agent are caused from the zygomycosis (fungal infections), accounting for 66% of reported culture-positive cases and 90% of rhinocerebral cases; may cause mucinosis in immune-compromised individuals. The places where the infection occurs are the lungs, nasal sinuses, brain, eyes and skin. Infection may occur at more than one site.
Areas to be found: grows very well on materials with high cellulose content (such as soft materilas like drywall, ceiling tiles, jute-backed carpets, etc.) that become chronically moist or water-leak-damaged due to flooding, excessive humidity, or condensation
Identification: Grows moderately quickly; the texture is powdery, the pigment is white, pink, orange, black on the surface and light, orange, pink, black in the opposite direction
Mycotoxins produced: Roridin E, Trichoverrols, Verrucarin, Satratoxins, F, G, H; Trichoverrins, Verruculogen Health effects: Infants under one-year-old are definitely most at risk if they breathe high levels of Stachybotrys spores for long periods of time. Stachybotrys has been associated with a very rare condition called “pulmonary hemosis” (bleeding from the lungs) in infants coming from extremely contaminated homes. It can only happen in the developing lungs of infants, and it doesn’t happen in just anybody else. However, others may develop more general health effects, such as eye irritation, worsening of asthma, cold-like symptoms, eruptions, headaches, fatigue from Interpretation of Mold Spores from Air Test Results – Get to know the Acceptable Mold Spores Levels from Air Quality Test Results!
Areas to be found: gypsum, paper, paint and straw materials; needs large source of water Identification: Grows moderately quickly; texture is woolly/cotton. The pigment is olive brown/black over the surface and upside down. The hyphae are septate, brown; the conidiophores are brown with elbows in the form of a knee. Conidia ( poroconidia ) are brown, muriform, obovate/ellipsoidal, smooth or rugged, usually isolated.
Mycotoxins produced: nothing has been identified at this time
Health effects: allergenic effects generally are displayed in the form of the Type I allergies; witch has been implicated from the phaeohyphomycosis (fungal infection are usually caused by a number of brown-pigmented fungi) and in rare subcutaneous tissue infections.
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